Tuberculosis causes pathology symptoms

Tuberculosis causes by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis. The bacteria mainly attack the lung but tuberculosis bacteria affect any part of the body like the kidney, spine, heart, and brain.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacteria family Mycobacteriaceae and a causative agent of tuberculosis. discovered by Robert Koch in 1882.

What is pulmonary tuberculosis?

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a lung infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis. it is transmitted through airborne droplets.Β 

How do bacteria enter your lung?

If a person has tuberculosis and that person is roaming in the open or in a crowded area, then you can inhale the bacteria from there.
And you can get this disease by coming in contact with a hospital or a person who has had tuberculosis.

What is the pathophysiology of tuberculosis?

When bacteria first time enter through your respiratory tract in your lung and cause a disease called pulmonary tuberculosis. First-time bacteria enter and lesion in Intra lobular called Ghon’s focus. After attacking bacteria in the lungs first cell involve is called alvo macrophage. But in the starting macrophage do not eat within 3 weeks then activate APC antigen-presenting cells.Β 

Activate APC then activate TH1 cell and release INFΞ³ after release activates macrophages. After the end of these process granulation formation occur. In the formation of granulation activate TNFΞ± can cause vasodilation and chemotaxis or IL2 (Intralukein 2) can cause fever.

In granulation formation deposition calcium (Ca2+) and fibrous are called Raenke’s complex. During granulation, the formation of decreased O2 (oxygen) supply can cause necrosis because of impaired blood vessel function. And this is the protective mechanism but the side effect is cases of necrosis.Β 

Ghon’s focus first-time bacteria enter and lesion in Intra lobular called Ghon’s focus.

Ghon’s complex is Lymphatic drain and lymphadenopathy with Ghon’s focus.

How granulation is a protective mechanism?

When granulation occurs in the lungs, then the supply of oxygen becomes useful and to develop the bacteria of tuberculosis, oxygen is required which is not available and the bacteria becomes dead.

Symptoms of tuberculosis:

In the beginning, there is no symptom but as time goes on the symptom starts developing include.

  • low-grade fever
  • night sweats
  • weakness
  • tiredness
  • weight loss
  • cough
  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath
  • coughing up blood

What can cause tuberculosis?

  • Poverty
  • HIV infection
  • Homelessness
  • Being in jail or prison (where close contact can spread infection)
  • Substance abuse
  • Taking medication weakens the immune system
  • Kidney disease and diabetes
  • Organ transplant

How to diagnose tuberculosis?

Mantoux tuberculin the most common used diagnostic tool for tuberculosis is a skin test in this test a small amount of a substance tuberculin is injected just below the skin on the inside of your forearm. Within 48 to 72 hours will check your arm for swelling at the injection site. A hard, rais red bump it means you are likely to have a TB infection.

But this test is not perfect to identify tuberculosis infection. Because a person who has recently taken the bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine may have a false positive result.

  • Blood tests: You can find out about tuberculosis bacteria by blood test because in this condition your immune system reacts with tuberculosis bacteria.
  • Imaging tests: In imaging tests, you can see the person’s lung, in which white spots are visible, which you can see with the help of a CT scan or chest x-ray.
  • Sputum tests: Sputum is thick mucus, it is also called phlegm, it comes out of the lungs. Being a thick mucus, it contains infectious germs.

How can we treat tuberculosis?

You can take its treatment under the supervision of a doctor. If your treatment tuberculosis is active, then start antibiotics, whose time duration will be for six to nine months.

The most common tuberculosis drug is:

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
  • Ethambutol (Myambutol)
  • Pyrazinamide

Fluoroquinolones and injectable medications, such as amikacin or capreomycin (Capastat), are generally used for 20 to 30 months if you have drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Some drugs are added during the treatment of tuberculosis which are:

  • Bedaquiline (Sirturo)
  • Linezolid (Zyvox)

The side effect of tuberculosis drugs are:

  • Nausea
  • vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Yellow color to your skin (jaundice)
  • Dark urine
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Blurred vision