Diabetes 2 type Casue Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment

Type 2 diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus type 2, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from insulin resistance and inadequate insulin production. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90-95% of all diagnosed cases.

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The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not fully understood, but it is believed to develop as a result of a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Some risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include:

  1. Obesity or being overweight
  2. Sedentary lifestyle
  3. Unhealthy eating habits
  4. Family history of diabetes
  5. Ethnicity (people of certain ethnicities, such as African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asians, have a higher risk)
  6. Increasing age
  7. High blood pressure
  8. Abnormal cholesterol levels


The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may develop gradually and can include:

  1. Increased thirst and frequent urination
  2. Fatigue and weakness
  3. Unexplained weight loss (in some cases)
  4. Blurred vision
  5. Slow-healing sores or frequent infections
  6. Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
  7. Dark patches on the skin (acanthosis nigricans)


If left uncontrolled, type 2 diabetes can lead to several long-term complications, including:

  1. Cardiovascular disease: This includes heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.
  2. Nerve damage (neuropathy): Diabetes can cause damage to the nerves, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and pain in the extremities.
  3. Kidney damage (nephropathy): Diabetes can affect the kidneys’ filtering function, leading to kidney disease or kidney failure.
  4. Eye damage (retinopathy): High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision problems and even blindness.
  5. Foot complications: Nerve damage and poor circulation can increase the risk of foot ulcers, infections, and, in severe cases, amputation.
  6. Skin conditions: Diabetes may cause skin problems such as bacterial and fungal infections, itching, and slow wound healing.
  7. Increased risk of infections: Diabetes can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections.


The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes involves a combination of medical history, physical examinations, and laboratory tests. Here’s an overview of the diagnostic process:

Medical History:

Your healthcare provider will ask you about your symptoms, medical history, and any risk factors you may have for type 2 diabetes. They will inquire about common symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and a family history of diabetes.

Physical Examination:

During a physical examination, your healthcare provider may check your blood pressure, weight, and waist circumference. They may also look for signs of insulin resistance, such as dark patches of skin (acanthosis nigricans) or skin infections.

Blood Tests:

  • Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test: This test measures your blood sugar level after fasting for at least 8 hours. A result of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher on two separate occasions generally indicates diabetes.
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): This test involves drinking a glucose solution, followed by blood sugar level measurements after fasting and two hours later. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher after two hours indicates diabetes.
  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: This blood test provides an average of your blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months. An HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher is usually indicative of diabetes.

It’s important to note that different countries and healthcare providers may have slightly varying diagnostic criteria. Your healthcare provider will use the appropriate guidelines and consider your individual circumstances to make an accurate diagnosis.

If diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, your healthcare provider will discuss the results with you, explain the implications, and work with you to develop an individualized treatment plan. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels, lifestyle changes (such as dietary modifications and exercise), and possibly medications or insulin therapy will be part of the management approach. It’s crucial to continue ongoing care, adhere to the treatment plan, and maintain regular follow-ups with your healthcare provider to effectively manage type 2 diabetes and reduce the risk of complications.

Management and Treatment:

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that requires lifelong management. The primary goals of treatment are to control blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications. Treatment options may include:

  1. Lifestyle modifications: This includes adopting a healthy diet, regular exercise, weight management, and smoking cessation.

  2. Oral medications: Several classes of oral medications are available to help control blood sugar levels. These include metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. The choice of medication depends on various factors and is determined by the healthcare provider.

  3. Insulin therapy: In some cases, when oral medications are not sufficient to control blood sugar levels, insulin therapy may be required. Insulin can be injected using a syringe, insulin pen, or an insulin pump.

  4. Blood sugar monitoring: Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels is essential to assess the effectiveness of treatment and make necessary adjustments.


Preventing type 2 diabetes involves adopting a healthy lifestyle and making certain choices to reduce the risk factors associated with the condition. Here are some preventive measures:

  1. Maintain a Healthy Weight:  Type 2 diabetes is linked to obesity, especially abdominal fat. Eat well and exercise to maintain a healthy weight.

  2. Follow a Balanced Diet:  Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Avoid processed foods, sugary drinks, and saturated and trans fats. Low-glycemic foods help control blood sugar.

  3. Engage in Regular Physical Activity: Regular exercise increases insulin sensitivity, weight control, and type 2 diabetes risk. Get 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity like brisk walking, swimming, or cycling every week. Strength training twice a week.

  4. Limit Sedentary Behavior:  Sedentary lifestyles raise type 2 diabetes risk. Take breaks to move around, stand instead of sitting, and use stairs instead of elevators to get more exercise.

  5. Stay Hydrated and Limit Sugary Drinks:  Hydrate with water, unsweetened tea, or other non-caloric drinks. Sugary drinks such as sodas, energy drinks, sweetened juices, and sports drinks can cause weight gain and diabetes.

  6. Quit Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and exacerbates the complications associated with the condition. If you smoke, seek professional help to quit smoking.

  7. Limit Alcohol Consumption:  Alcohol can cause weight gain and type 2 diabetes. Drink alcohol moderately. Men should have two drinks every day and women one.

  8. Get Regular Check-ups: Regular medical check-ups can help identify any potential risk factors or early signs of diabetes. Discuss your concerns with a healthcare professional and get screened for diabetes regularly, especially if you have risk factors.

  9. Manage Stress:  Chronic stress can raise blood sugar and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Use relaxation techniques, exercise, hobbies, or friends, family, or mental health professionals to manage stress.

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