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Bleeding between periods. After sexual intercourse bleeding. Bleeding in post-menopausal women. During sexual intercourse discomfort. Vaginal discharge strong odor. Vaginal discharge with tinged blood. Pain in pelvic.
In the early stage of cervical cancer, no one comes to know about cervical cancer because it does not have any symptoms, for this one should always keep doing pap tests. Pap test is the only solution, this test does not detect cancer, only the changes in the cell are detected, the sooner it is detected, the easier it is in its treatment. and start treatment as soon as possible
Early signs and symptoms of cervical cancer:
In the early stage of cervical cancer, no one comes to know about cervical cancer because it does not have any symptoms, for this one should always keep doing pap tests. Pap test is the only solution, this test does not detect cancer, only the changes in the cell are detected, the sooner it is seen, the easier it is in its treatment. and start treatment as soon as possible
The most common cervical cancer symptoms are:
- Bleeding between periods
- After sexual intercourse bleeding
- Bleeding in post-menopausal women
- During sexual intercourse discomfort
- Vaginal discharge strong odor
- Vaginal discharge with tinged blood
- Pain in pelvic
There could be some other reason that would cause this symptom, if you find this, then contact your doctor.
Stages: cervical cancer:
It is important to find out the stage of cancer because it helps the patient in treatment. Stage means how far cancer has spread and which organ it has been involved. Here are the 4 stages by which you can find out how far cancer has spread
Stage 0: Precancerous cells is present.
(For cervical lesion)
- Do local examination
- Per speculum examination
- Per vaginal examination
- Per rectal examination for – Parametrium
- Cystoscopy- For bladder
1: In 1st stage, cancer cells grow into deeper tissue of the cervix and near the lymph node limited to the cervix
- 1A Microscopic cancer
- A1- More than 3cm depth invasion
- A2- 3-5 mm depth invasion
- 1B Macroscopic cancer
- B1-<2 cm
- B2 – >2 cm, < 4 cm
- B3- > 4cm
2: In the 2nd stage not involve lymph node cells move in the cervix and uterus, but not the lower part of the pelvis.
- 2A – upper vaginal involve A1 < 4 cm
- 2B- Para metiram involve A2 > 4 cm, But short of pelvic side wall
3: In the 3rd stage cancer cells present lower part of the vagina and pelvis wall involve. Block uterus that carries urine from the bladder.
- 3A- Lower part 1/3 vaginal involve
- 3B- Parametrium involve till pelvic side wall (Hydronephrosis)
- 3C- C1 pelvic lymph node involve, C2 Paraaortic Lymph node involve
- The most common presentation of cervical cancer in India – 3B
4: in the 4th stage can affect your lymph nodes, and spread to distant organs like the liver lung kidney.
- 4A- Bladder and bowel involvement
- 4B- Distant metastasis (Inguinal lymph node not involvement) Cervix doesn’t drain into the lingual group of the lymph nodes.
Early treatment increase the chances of survival, Undergoing screening, and seeking medical attention if any symptoms occur.
Causes cervical cancer:
- HPV 16 (most common cause of cervical cancer)
- HPV 18 (most Malignant)
- HSV 1 and 2
- HIV 1 and 2
- Commercial sex worker
- Partner with std
- Women with many partner
- Low socio-economic status
- Early inter course (> 16 yr.)
- Postpartum/puerperal time
HPV virus causes 99% chance of cervical cancer
Cervical cancer awareness:
Cervical cancer develops in a woman’s cervix (the entrance to the uterus from the vagina). 99% of cervical cancer occurs due to HPV human papillomaviruses infection. Viruses are transmitted through sexual contact.
In India, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women. Worldwide 4th most common cancer in women.
In worldwide Estimated 570 000 women were diagnosed and about 311 000 women died from cervical cancer.
You can prevent this by having regular screening tests. Early detection of cervical cancer has good prognosis.
If your cancer detects in late-stage control by treatment and palliative care.
Diagnosis of cervical cancer:
Early diagnosis improves the chance of cervical cancer PAP smear by Ayer’s spatula. Site – Transformation zone (Squamous columnar junction). Endometrium – columnar
Vaginal and cervix – Squamous, located at 1.7 to 2.3 cm from the external os change location with age group.
Under 25 years: ACS does not recommend it. From 25–65 years: Every 5-year HPV testing for cervical cancer
Over 65 years.
The ACS does not need screening tests that have an adequate screening in hysterectomy with removal of the cervix does not need screening. There is some screening on this but the doctor recommends screening according to their need.
Cervical smear test:
- PAP smear by Ayer’s spatula
- Site – Transformation zone (Squamous columnar junction)
- Endometrium – columnar
- Vaginal and cervix – Squamous, located at 1.7 to 2.3 cm from the external os change location with age group
- HPV DNA testing
This test shows what type of HPV cervical cancer the patient has. Cells are collected from the cervix and tested in a laboratory. In this test, the high-risk HPV strain is detected.
If the Pap test detects abnormal cells, the doctor may recommend additional tests. These include:
- Colposcopy: Using a speculum and a colposcope, this method of visual examination of the vagina.
- Examination under anesthesia (EUA): Under the anesthesia doctor examines the vagina and cervix more thoroughly.
- Biopsy: Under general anesthesia, the doctor takes a small section of tissue.
- Cone biopsy: From the cervix for examination doctor takes a small, cone-shaped section of abnormal tissue.
- LLETZ: Remove abnormal tissue to help of wire loop and electrical current, and send for examination
- Blood tests: Identify liver or kidney problems are known by blood cell count.
- CT scan: Show up any cellular abnormalities.
- MRI: In its early stages, able to identify cervical cancer.
- Pelvic ultrasound: Create an image of the target area on a monitor under the high-frequency wave.
Treatment of cervical cancer:
Cancer treatment depend upon various factors like the stage of cancer, age, the health of the patient, and another factor also. If cancer within the cervix has good success rate. If your cancer spread to another area success rate is low.
If cancer is not spread from cervix most common treatment is surgery. If cancer cell might present can use radiation therapy. Using radiation therapy reduce the risk of recurrence (cancer coming back). For shrink the tumour use chemotherapy to make easier operation.
Treatment for advanced cervical cancer:
Surgery is not an option if cancer spread beyond the cervix. In this stage, your doctor requires radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and a combination of both. Health care professionals provide palliative therapy to relive symptom and quality of life. Some doctors refer to radiation therapy as radiation oncology or XRT. Radiation to destroy cancer cells use of beams of high-energy X-rays.
The side effect of radiation therapy because the aim of radiation at the pelvic area:
- Upset stomach
- Bladder irritation
- Narrowing of the vagina
- Interrupted menstrual cycle
- Early menopause
Use of chemical medication to treat any disease. In this method destruction of cancer cells. When cancer is spread, we can’t do surgery or remove area we use chemotherapy to the target cancer cells. If the symptom is advanced we can use it.
The side effects depend upon the specific drug of chemotherapy.
Common side effects include:
- Hair loss
- Early menopause
Cervical cancer clinical trials:
Best treatment option for some people participating in a clinical trial may be the. Clinical trials and diagnostic tests are an integral part of the cancer research process. Researchers carry them out to determine the safety and effectiveness of new treatments, and whether they are better than existing treatments. People who participate in clinical trials are contributing to cancer research and innovation.
Several measures can help reduce the chances of developing cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine HPV is ca lear link between the development of cervical cancer. Females reduce the frequency of cervical cancer. If every female keeps to the current HPV vaccination programs, Safe sex, and cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine only protects against two HPV strains. You can other strains that can cause cervical cancer.
You Protect against HPV infection by Using a condom during sex.
You can diagnose cancer with your regular check-up. Screen tests can detect cervical cell growth.
You can’t detect cervical cancer. Having fewer sexual partners. If any women have multiple sexual partners risk chance of increase transmitting the HPV virus. Delaying first sexual intercourse. If a woman has sex at a young age, then the chance of HPV infection increases. If you have sex after 18 years then there is a chance of risk.
Stopping smoking. Women who smoke have an increased risk of cervical cancer.