Anti Psychosis Drugs Types Side-effect And Mechanism

Anti psychosis drugs often known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, senile psychoses, other organic psychoses, and drug-induced psychoses. People suffering from psychosis can be dangerous to themselves and others at times, but not always. Antipsychotic drugs have both a sedative impact in the near term and a long-term effect of lowering the likelihood of psychotic episodes. The majority of medications are available in oral dose forms (tablets, dry powder, and capsules), however, some can also be administer parenterally (intramuscular and intravenous injections).

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You can also read How to work Antipsychotic drugs

Typical And A Typical Anti Psychosis Drugs Commonly Prescribed

The following are examples of common Anti psychosis drugs:

  • Haldol(haloperidol)
  • Loxitane(loxapine)
  • Mellaril(thioridazine)
  • Moban(molindone)
  • Navane(thiothixene)
  • Prolixin(fluphenazine)
  • Serentil(mesoridazine)
  • Stelazine(trifluoperazine)
  • Trilafon(perphenazine)
  • Thorazine(chlorpromazine)

Typical dosages of atypical Anti psychosis drugs include:

  • Abilify(aripiprazole)
  • Clozaril(clozapine)
  • Geodon(ziprasidone)
  • Risperdal(risperidone)
  • Seroquel(quetiapine)
  • Zyprexa(olanzapine)

Most psychotropic drugs work best when combined with some form of psychotherapy. Medication can be very helpful in treating and overcoming debilitating symptoms, but drugs cannot address behaviors, emotions, or the underlying causes of mental health difficulties. Please consider finding a therapist you can rely on if you are prescribing an antipsychotic medication so they can help you learn more about what you are going through and develop coping mechanisms to enhance the quality of your life.

Antipsychotic Types:

There are two types of drugs in this category:

Typical antipsychotics are sometimes known as antipsychotic drugs of the first generation.

The first conventional antipsychotics were developed in the 1950s. The most well-known typical antipsychotics are Haldol (haloperidol) and Thorazine (chlorpromazine). They are still used to treat severe psychosis and behavioral issues when newer drugs are inadequate. These treatments, however, carry a high risk of adverse effects, some of which are quite severe. In response to the dangerous side effects of many typical antipsychotics, pharmaceutical companies created a new class of drugs known as atypical antipsychotics.

Atypical antipsychotics, sometimes known as antipsychotic drugs of the second generation.

In the 1990s, these new drugs were licensed for use. Atypical antipsychotic medications include clozapine, asenapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, paliperidone, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine, and aripiprazole. With the discovery of clozapine in 1959, it became clear that at clinically effective doses, this drug was less likely to produce extrapyramidal effects (physical symptoms such as tremors, paranoia, anxiety, dystonia, and so on as a result of improper dosing or adverse reactions to this class of drug) in humans than some other types of antipsychotics. Clozapine was the first atypical antipsychotic medication. This class of medications has also proved extremely useful in researching the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychoses.

Mechanism Of Action Anti-Psychosis Drugs:

In the late 1950s, dopamine was identified and classified as a neurotransmitter. The central nervous system contains five dopaminergic receptor routes or systems. Among these systems or pathways are:

  • Mesolimbic-mesocortical route
  • The nigrostriatal route
  • The medullary-periventricular route
  • Incertohypothalamic axis
  • Tuberoinfundibular route

These pathways influence thinking, cognitive behavior, learning, sexual and pleasure sensations, and voluntary movement coordination. Many of the symptoms of schizophrenia are caused by extra firing (production of this neurotransmitter) of dopamine in these pathways.

Many atypical or second-generation antipsychotics inhibit serotonin (5-HT) receptors in the brain, notably 5-HT2A receptors, which are important in schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics also have an effect on adrenergic, cholinergic (muscarinic), and histamine receptors.

Adverse Drug Reaction And Side-Effects

Antipsychotic drug users may encounter unpleasant side effects such as:

Extrapyramidal effects include dystonias, akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson’s-like symptoms, inappropriate movements, ataxia, muscular breakdown, rigidity, tremors, and seizures. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is also possible.

Drowsiness, sedation, and hypnosis are common effects on the central nervous system. Various studies have also found confusion, vertigo, syncope, disrupted sleep, nightmares, and agitation. Some negative effects include dementia, forgetfulness, and memory loss. Suicidal ideation in both young and old people, as well as increased mania, anxiety, agitation, violent conduct, and depression, can be seen in patients using these medicines.

Cardiovascular System Effects:

Cardiomyopathy has been reported in nine out of every 100,000 patients taking clozapine. Serious side effects include changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) readings, chest discomfort, angina, myocarditis, palpitation, tachycardia, edema, phlebitis, and arrhythmias. Only 1% of persons taking this class of medication experience a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Orthostatic hypotension is the medical term for the fuzzy feeling you experience when you stand up too rapidly.

Effects on the Liver:

These drugs raise the serum levels of alkaline aminotransferase. In studies, reversible liver cell hyperplasia, a rise in bilirubin, jaundice, drug-induced hepatitis, and necrosis were seen.

Constipation, dry mouth, anorexia, weight gain, elevations in pancreatic enzymes, epigastric pain, abdominal cramps, dyspepsia, heartburn, and nausea are some of the most prevalent side effects.

  • Impotence,
  • Delayed and premature ejaculation
  • Testicular swelling
  • Priapism
  • Increased or decreased libido
  • Vaginal itching
  • Enuresis
  • Polyuria
  • Breast engorgement
  • Galactorrhea and anorgasmia

Other Side Effects:

There have been reports of cases of blurred vision, hot flushes, dry throat, nasal congestion, severe hyperglycemia, numbness, chills, glaucoma, leukopenia, neutropenia, hyperlipidemia, agranulocytosis, and respiratory depression.

Pregnancy and lactation:

Animal studies show no teratogenic effects from antipsychotics in pregnant women. Clozapine and olanzapine do not affect fetuses. During lactation, milk metabolites may change, harming the newborn.

Interaction With Drug:

Antipsychotics are contraindication with the following drugs:

  • Anti-anxiety medications and other CNS depressants
  • Antidepressants
  • Hypotensive medications
  • Anticholinergic medications
  • Anticoagulants
  • Levodopa
  • Carbidopa
  • Alcohol
  • The acid valproate
  • Lithium
  • Drugs that influence seizure threshold
  • Smoking

The Symptoms Of Withdrawal:

Antipsychotic withdrawal should be slow and progressive. This requires 15–30 days. Stopping therapy abruptly may cause nausea, vomiting, psychotic symptoms, hypertension, and sleep problems.


  • Most addicting antipsychotic?

Studies show Seroquel is the most abused atypical antipsychotic. Addiction necessitates rehab treatment after abuse.

  • Which antipsychotics are most popular?

Risperdal, quetiapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, paliperidone, aripiprazole, and clozapine are all in this class (Clozaril).

  • Most antipsychotics affect what?

Most antipsychotics block brain dopamine receptors. This decreases these messages, reducing psychotic symptoms. influencing brain chemistry. Most antipsychotics influence other brain chemicals.

  • Antipsychotics treat what?

Schizophrenia and other psychotic diseases are treated with antipsychotics. They also treat depression and bipolar illness. Antipsychotic effects vary. Antipsychotics have adverse effects.

  • Which antipsychotic is weakest?

Risperidone is the least atypical antipsychotic.

  • Which antipsychotic sedates most?

In this population-wide head-to-head comparison of thirty-seven antipsychotics, zuclopenthixol was most associated with drowsiness and somnolence, while prochlorperazine was the least.

  • Antipsychotics and memory?

Antipsychotics also bind strongly to cholinergic muscarinic receptors. High anticholinergic daily dosage (CDD) medication decreases attention and memory.

  • Who prescribes antipsychotics?


Psychiatrists are medical doctors. Psychiatrists diagnose mental health disorders, administer medications to treat them, and give therapy.