Alprazolam Uses Side-effect Mechanism

Alprazolam Uses to treat anxiety and panic disorders. The drug belongs to a class of medications called benzodiazepinesย which act on theย brainย and nerves (central nervous system) to produce a calming effect and it works by enhancing the effects of a certain natural chemical in the body (GABA).

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  • Class : ( Alprazolam Uses for Anxiolytics)
  • Brand name: Xanax, (salt concentration alprazolam)
  • Formula:ย C17H13ClN4
  • Molar mass:ย 308.765 g/mol
  • CAS ID:ย 28981-97-7
  • Onset of action:ย 20~60 minutes
  • Metabolites:ย Alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, 4-hydroxyalprazolam, beta-hydroxyalprazolam
  • Duration of action:ย Full release: 6 hours; Extended release: 11.3 hours
  • Metabolism:ย Liver, viaย cytochrome P450 3A4

Storage:ย  Store below 25ยฐC

Mechanism of Action:

Alprazolam has anxiolytic, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, antidepressant and sleep-modifying effects. It binds to the ? aminobutyric acid (GABA)-specific sites throughout the CNS, leading to an increase in the inhibitory effect of GABA on neuronal excitability. Increased neuronal permeability to chloride ions thus results in hyperpolarisation and stabilisation.

Absorption: Well absorbed from the GIT (oral); peak plasma concentrations after 1-2 hrs.

Distribution: Protein-binding: 70-80%

Metabolism: Hepatic; converted to a-hydroxyalprazolam and benzophenone.

Excretion: Urine (as unchanged drug and metabolites); 11-15 hrs (elimination half-life).

Indication & dosage alprazolam uses information:

Short-term management of anxiety

  • Adult alprazolam uses: Tablet use 0.25-0.5 mg three time a day (tid), and increased to 3-4 mg daily if dose necessary.
  • For elderly: Initially, alprazolam dose 0.25 mg two time a day and time a day (bid/tid).

For panic attacks:

  • Adult use alprazolam: Up to 10 mg daily.

How to take alprazolam:

May be oral tablet taken with or without food. (Side effects such as sleepiness/ drowsiness may be reduced if taken immediately after meals.)

What happen ifย  miss the dose?

Do not take two tablets together the next day. Just like we were taking before, we should keep the same dose on the same time. If you take two tablets together, then they become over dosed in your body.

What is side-effect:

  • Psychological and physical dependence
  • Withdrawal syndrome
  • Drowsiness
  • Sedation
  • Vertigo
  • Headache
  • Visual disturbances
  • GI disturbances
  • Jaundice
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle
  • Weakness
  • Ataxia
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Depression

Life threatening condition: Blood dyscrasias.

Special Precautions:

  • Dosage reduction or gradual withdrawal
  • Dependence
  • Geriatric or debilitated patients
  • Muscle weakness, impaired hepatic or renal function
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Obesity
  • Depression
  • Particularly suicidal tendency
  • Chronic pulmonary insufficiency
  • May impair ability to drive or operate machinery
  • This drug not give children wo age not more than 18 year.


An overdose isย when you take more than the normal or recommended amount of a drug. An overdose may result in serious, harmful symptoms or death and if you take too much of something on purpose, it is called an intentional or deliberate overdose.

Overdose symptoms like:

  • Confusion
  • Somnolence
  • Pulse rate and BP
  • Monitor respiration
  • Impaired coordination
  • Dialysis is of limited value
  • Diminished reflexes and coma
  • If hypotension occurs, it may be combated by the use of vasopressors
  • General supportive measures and immediate gastric lavage may be recommended
  • Flumazenil may be used for complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected.


  • Lactation
  • Pregnancy
  • Sleep apnea
  • Respiratory depression
  • Severe hepatic impairment
  • Acute narrow-angle glaucoma
  • Acute pulmonary insufficiency
  • Preexisting CNS depression or coma.

Pregnancy Category (US FDA):

Category D: There is positive evidence of human foetal risk, but the benefits from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite the risk (example., if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective). Alprazolam Uses”

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